South Korea becomes global leader in innovation through investment in research, systemic reform and talent mobility
Nature Index 2020 South Korea, published in the May 28 issue of Nature, investigates South Korea’s strategy to become a “first mover” by investing in basic research grants and original discoveries.
Seoul | Sydney, 27 May 2020
South Korea’s spending on research and development as a percentage of its gross domestic product (GDP) is the second highest worldwide, being topped only by Israel. Between 2000 and 2018, research and development funding grew from 2.1% of GDP in 2000 to more than 4.5%. The nation’s goal to become a “first mover” instead of simply a “fast follower” to maintain economic growth is reflected in this investment, and is the focus of Nature Index 2020 South Korea.
According to the Nature Index, South Korea has retained its position in the top 10 countries in terms of high quality research output, as measured by the key metric “Share” over the past four years. Aside from the sustained investment in research and development, South Korea has also demonstrated growth in collaboration, in particular with China. In 2018, China displaced Japan as South Korea’s second-most collaborative partner in the index, after the United States.
This special report demonstrates how a concerted government push to make South Korea an innovation leader, backed by strong investment and systemic reform, has brought rapid and long-lasting results. The South Korean government’s systematic approach has been the crucial factor in creating an innovative economy that turns ideas from laboratories into products and industries. Nature Index 2020 South Korea also looks at how the Institute for Basic Science network will fare under increased scrutiny, and considers what’s in store for the nation as a new generation of biotechnology, artificial intelligence, and cybersecurity businesses mature. South Korea’s scientific landscape is becoming more diverse and more productive, with an influx of globally mobile researchers since 2017. These researchers have been found to be 50% more productive than other academics in the country.
David Swinbanks, Founder of the Nature Index, said: “South Korea’s ‘top-down’ planning forged the strong ties between government, academia and industry that helped it become a global leader in information and communication technologies and in innovation generally. The top-down approach played a key role for example in the nation’s ability to quickly develop and produce diagnostic kits for COVID-19.”
The creativity and determination demonstrated by the country’s post-war economic and scientific transformation point to further success ahead. It is encouraging to see governmental initiatives to promote basic as well as applied research aimed at transitioning South Korea from a ‘fast follower’ to a ‘first mover.’”
Further features of this special report include: league tables of South Korean Institutions listed by Share; graphics showing South Korea’s position among the leading scientific nations and its notable strength in the physical sciences; the leading research collaborators with tech giant, Samsung; and the South Korean institutions attracting the most talent from overseas.
Note: The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields (see below). The Nature Index recognises that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons license at natureindex.com.
The Nature Index 2020 South Korea is available here.
A PDF of the supplement is available to journalists on request.
About the Nature Index
The Nature Index is a database of author affiliations and institutional relationships. The index tracks contributions to research articles published in 82 natural science journals, selected on reputation for quality by an independent group of leading scientists.
The Nature Index provides absolute and fractional counts of article publication at the institutional and national level and, as such, is an indicator of global high-quality research output and collaboration. Data in the Nature Index are updated regularly, with the most recent 12 months made available under a Creative Commons licence at natureindex.com. The database is compiled by Nature Research, part of Springer Nature.
Nature Index metrics
The Nature Index uses Count and Share to track research output.
A country/region or an institution is given a Count of 1 for each article that has at least one author from that country/region or institution. This is the case regardless of the number of authors an article has, and it means that the same article can contribute to the Count of multiple countries/regions or institutions.
To glean a country’s, a region’s or an institution’s contribution to an article, and to ensure they are not counted more than once, the Nature Index uses Share, a fractional count that takes into account the share of authorship on each article. The total Share available per article is 1, which is shared among all authors under the assumption that each contributed equally. For instance, an article with 10 authors means that each author receives a Share of 0.1. For authors who are affiliated with more than one institution, the author’s Share is then split equally between each institution. The total Share for an institution is calculated by summing the Share for individual affiliated authors. The process is similar for countries/regions, although complicated by the fact that some institutions have overseas labs that will be counted towards host country/region totals.
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